Section 251. A holder of a preferential right has, according to the provisions of this Code or other laws, a right as to the property of his debtor to receive therefrom performance of an obligation due to him in preference to other creditors.
Section 252. The provisions of Section 244 apply correspondingly to preferential rights.
1. General Preferential Rights
Section 253. A person in whose favour an obligation exist based upon any of the following grounds has a preferential right in the whole property of the debtor:
- Expenses for the common benefit
- Funeral expenses
- Taxes and duties, and money to which an employee entitled for the service rendered to the debtor who is his employer.
- Supplies of daily necessaries.
Section 254. The preferential right on account of expenses for the common benefit is for expenses incurred for the common benefit of all the creditors in regard to preservation , liquidation or distribution of the debtor’s property.
If any such expense was not incurred for the benefit of all the creditors, the preferential right only exist against those creditors for whose benefit it was incurred.
Section 255. The preferential right on account of funeral expenses is for such funeral expenses as are accordant to the station in life of the debtor.
Section 256. The preferential right on account of taxes and rates is for all land, property or other taxes or local rates due from the debtor for the current year and the preceding year.
Section 257. The preferential right on account of money, to which an employee is entitled for services rendered to the debtor who is his employer, is for basic pay, overtime pay, holiday pay, holiday overtime pay, severance pay, special severance pay, and other money to which the employee is entitled for services rendered to, for four months back not exceeding one hundred thousand baht for each employee.
Section 258. The preferential right on account of supplies of the daily necessaries is for supplies for six months back of food, drink, light, firewood and charcoal, necessary for the living of the debtor, of members of his family, who live with him and whom he is bound to support, and of his servants.
2. Special Preferential Rights
(a) PREFERENTIAL RIGHTS IN MOVABLES
Section 259. A person in whose favour an obligation exists based upon any of the following grounds has a preferential right in particular movables of the debtor:
- Hiring of an immovable.
- Lodging in an inn.
- Carriage of passengers of goods.
- Preservation of movables.
- Sale of movables.
- Supply of seeds, young plants or manure.
- Agricultural or industrial services.
Section 260. The preferential right on account of the hiring of an immovable is for the hire of the immovable and for other obligations of the hired arising from the relation of hiring, and is in the movables of the hirer which are in or on the immovable.
Section 261. The preferential right of the letter of land is in such movables as have been brought by he hirer upon the land hired or into buildings subservient to the use of such land, in such movables as are destined for the use of such land and in such fruits of the land as are in the possession of the hirer.
The preferential right of the letter or a building is in such movables as have been brought into the building by the hirer.
Section 262. If a hirer of immovable property is transferred or sublet, the preferential right of the original letter extends to the movables brought by the transferee or sub-hirer into the property. The same applies to the money which the transferor or the sub-letter is to receive from the transferee or sub-hirer.
Section 263. In case of a general liquidation of the property of the hirer, the preferential right of the letter is only for the rent and other obligations of the last preceding, the current and the next following rent period and for such damages as have arisen during the last preceding and the current rent period.
Section 264. If the letter has received security money, he has a preferential right only with regard to that part of his claim which is not covered by the security money.
Section 265. The preferential right on account of lodging in an inn is for what is due to the proprietor for lodging and other services afforded to the traveler or guest in satisfaction of his needs, including disbursements, and is in the luggage or other property of the traveler or guest which is in the inn, hotel or other such place.
Section 266. The letter of an immovable property or the proprietor of an inn, hotel or other such place may enforce his preferential right in the same manner as a pledgee. The provisions of this Code concerning Enforcement of Pledge apply mutatis mutandis.
Section 267. The preferential right on account of carriage is for charges for the carriage of a passenger or goods and for accessory expenses, and is in all goods and luggage in the hands of the carrier.
Section 268. The letter of an immovable, the proprietor of an inn, or the carrier may enforce his preferential right against movables belonging to a third person in the case contemplated in the preceding eight sections, unless he knew in due time that they belong to the third person.
If such movables have been stolen or lost the provisions of the law concerning recovery of possession shall apply.
Sections 269. The preferential right on account of the preservation of a movable is for the expense of the preservation of movable, and is in such movable.
The preferential right exists also for necessary expenses incurred for the purpose of having a right relating to a movable preserved, acknowledged or enforced.
Section 270. The preferential right on account of the sale of a movable is for the price and interest thereon, and is in such movable.
Section 271. The preferential right on account of the supply of seeds, young plants or manure is for the price of seeds, young plants or manure and interest thereon, and is in the fruits which have grown on the land for which those things have been used within one year after their use.
Section 272. The preferential right on account of agricultural and industrial services is as to the person who rendered agricultural service for wages fro one year back, and as to a person who rendered industrial services for wages for three months back, and is in the fruits or manufactured things produced by his service.
(b) PREFERENTIAL RIGHTS IN IMMOVABLES
Section 273. A person in whose favor an obligation exists based upon any of the following grounds has a preferential right in a particular immovable of the debtor:
- Preservation of an immovable
- Work done upon an immovable
- Sale of an immovable
Section 274. The preferential right on account of the preservation of an immovable is for the expense of preservation of an immovable, and is in such immovable.
In case of the foregoing paragraph the provisions of Section 269 paragraph 2 apply correspondingly.
Section 275. The preferential right on account of work done upon an immovable is for charges for the work done upon an immovable of the debtor by a builder an architect or a contractor, and is in such immovable.
This preferential right exist only if there is a present increase of the value of such immovable due to such work, and is only in such increased value.
Section 276. The preferential right on account of the sale of an immovable is for the price and interest thereon, and is in such immovable.
3. Rank of Preferential Rights
Section 277. When general preferential rights conflict, the rank of their precedence is according to the order in Section 253.
When a preferential right conflicts with a special preferential right, the latter takes precedence, but the preferential rights on account of expenses for the common benefit takes precedence as against all creditors who are benefited thereby.
Section 278. When preferential rights in the same movable conflict, the rank of their precedence is as follows.
(1) The preferential right on account of the hiring of an immovable, of lodging in an inn and of carriage.
(2) The preferential right on account of the preservation of a movable, but if there are several persons entitled as preserves, a later preserves takes precedence of an earlier one.
(3) The preferential right on account of the sale of a movable, of the supply of seeds, young plants or manure, and of agriculture and industrial services.
If a person who has a preferential right of the first rank knew at the time when he acquired his obligation that other persons have preferential rights of the second or third rank, he cannot exercise his right of precedence against them. The same applies as against a person who has preserved a thing for the benefit of a person having a preferential right of the first rank.
As to fruits, a person who rendered agricultural services has the first rank, a supplier of seeds, young plants or manure the second, and the letter of the land third.
Section 279. When special preferential rights in the same immovable conflict, the rank of their precedence is according to the order in Section 273.
In successive sales have been made of the same immovable, the rank of precedence of the seller as between themselves is according to the priority of the sales.
Section 280. When several persons have preferential rights of the same rank in the same thing, each is to receive performance in proportion to the amount of his obligation.
4. Effect of Preferential rights
Section 281. A preferential right in a movable cannot be exercised after the debtor has delivered the thing to a third person who has acquired it from him.
Section 282. When a preferential right conflicts with a pledge of a movable, the pledgee has the same rights as the holder of a preferential right of the first rank mentioned in Section 278.
Section 283. A person who has a general preferential right must receive performance first out of the movable property of the debtor, and only in case that is insufficient he can receive performance out of immovables.
As to immovables, he must receive performance first out of such immovables as are not subject to a special security.
If a person who has a general preferential right negligently omits to intervene in a distribution according to the provisions of the foregoing two paragraphs, he cannot exercise his preferential right against a third person whose right is registered, to the extent of what he would have received through such intervention.
The provisions of the foregoing three paragraphs do not apply, if the proceeds of an immovable are to be distributed before those of other property, or if the proceeds of an immovable which is the subject of a special security are to be distributed before the proceeds of other immovables.
Section 284. A general preferential right, even though not registered in respect to an immovable, may be set up against any creditor who has no special security, but this does not apply against a third person who made registration.
Section 285. A preferential right on account of the preservation of an immovable retains its effect by being registered immediately after the act of preservation is completed.
Section 286. A preferential right on account of work done upon an immovable retains its effect by a provisional estimate of the cost being registered before the work has begun. If, however, the costs of the work exceeds the provisional estimate, there is no preferential right for the excess.
The increase of value of an immovable arising from the work done upon it is to be estimated by experts appointed by the Court at the time of the intervention in the distribution.
Section 287. A preferential right registered in accordance with the provisions of the preceding two sections can be exercised in preference to a mortgage.
Section 288. A preferential right on account of the sale of an immovable retains its effect by registering at the same time with the contract of sale the fact that the price or the interest thereon has not been paid.
Section 289. As to the effect of a preferential right, in addition to provisions of Sections 281 to 288 inclusive, the provisions as to Mortgage apply correspondingly.